Azare Journal of Education <p>Azare Journal of Education is a multi-disciplinary journal that publishes <br />very carefully selected papers that meet set out standard. The articles in this <br />volume are put together after review by the editorial committee and external <br />assessors and are found worthy of publication. This edition contains a total of <br />thirty three articles from different fields of knowledge. We are sure you will, as <br />usual enjoy reading them.<br />The journal is grateful to its contributors, who have contributed well <br />research articles that are thought provoking to articles that are purely empirical <br />and reviews that have met all known academic standard. There is no doubt in my <br />mind that everyone from highest to the lowest rung of the academic ladder will find <br />something in this volume worth his taste. For sure the articles in this volume have <br />contributed in no small way to the basket of knowledge</p> en-US (Dr. Yahaya A. Sambo) (Farouq Hammad Dabo) Sat, 30 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 A Survey on The Awareness, Utilization and Effectiveness of Guidance and Counseling Services Among Secondary School Students in Makurdi Local Government Area of Benue State <p>A survey on the awareness, utilization and effectiveness of guidance and counselling services among Secondary School Students in Makurdi Local Government Area of Benue State was conducted. Across150 participants were drawn from some selected Secondary School Students through stratified and purposive random sampling technique within Makurdi Metropolis. Descriptive research design of the survey type was used. The participants made up of 55 (37%) males and 95 (63%) females took part in the study. Self-developed questionnaire on guidance and counselling services with 35 items was used for data collection. Three hypotheses were formulated for the study. Independent t-test was employed to test the study hypotheses. The result of the first hypothesis showed that at the alpha level of 0.05 there is a significant positive awareness of guidance and counselling among secondary school students in Makurdi LGA of Benue State (r (148)= .262; p&lt;0.05).The result of the second hypothesis indicated that at the alpha level of 0.05 there is a significant utilization of guidance and counselling services among secondary school students in Makurdi LGA of Benue State (t (148) = 0.36; P&lt;.05). Finally, the result of the last hypothesis showed that there is a significant effectiveness of guidance and counselling services among students (t (148) = 0.79; P &lt;.05). To this end, the study recommended that in order to have all Students access to guidance and counselling services, head teachers and guidance teachersmust address the problems that students face in accessing these services.</p> Onifade Victoria, Daniel Benjamin Saanyol, Chaha Stephanie Kadoon Copyright (c) 2019 Fri, 01 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 An Analysis of The Benefits of The Platonic Doctrine of Education to The Nigerian Society <p>TThis paper takes a critical look at the originality, importance and usefulness of the educational ideas of Plato. The paper shows that Plato's immense contributions to the field of knowledge and doctrine of education are relevant to our time. Although, Plato was from an aristocratic family, he was very interested about education and how it should be practiced, he advocated for public education for both boys and girls and emphasized the relevance of education in producing noble men and women for the harmonious functioning of the society. The virtues and values that Plato advocated are needed in Nigeria today for the proper functioning of our society that is bedeviled with many tooting problems that requires urgent attention, such as unemployment, corruption, leadership crisis, religious intolerance and excessive quest for materialism, among others. To Plato, materialism can only fill the vacuum created by lack of intellectual knowledge; when your internal world is deprived, it is only natural to want to fill it with external things. Unfortunately, this is like filling a sieve with sand. The sand may fit in the sieve temporally, but it will soon sift through the holes, leaving you empty again. Therefore, virtues such as wisdom, braveness, self-control and the happiness and well-being of others should be encouraged and sustained in learning.</p> David Audu Mono, Joseph Alphonsus Shinga , Bulus Lah Copyright (c) 2019 Sat, 02 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Need for Disaster Management and Preparedness in Special Libraries in Nigeria <p>The paper focuses on the need for disaster management and preparedness in special libraries in Nigeria. It examines the history and objectives of special libraries. It also describes and identifies the challenges of disasters in the libraries. The paper suggests different strategies or measures that can reduce or minimize the effects of disaster in the library. Finally, it concludes with a strong suggestion to librarians on the need to put in place disaster management policy that can checkmate the colossal destruction of library resources in the face of disaster.</p> Clement Sule Akor Copyright (c) 2019 Sat, 02 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of School-Based Teacher Development Programme on Primary School Teachers' Competence in Ningi, Bauchi State <p>The study addressed teachers' competence operationally at primary school level in Ningi, Bauchi state. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of SbTDP on primary school teachers' instructional competence. A post-test only experimental design was used in the study. The population consisted of 161 participants out of which 40 qualified teachers from six primary schools who are currently teaching at Ningi Township were sampled. 20 teachers were randomly assigned to the experimental, and 20 other teachers to the control group. Two instruments were used for data collection that was subjected to reliability test to assess the teachers' levels of competencies and applications. Instrument one, was an observation rating scale: four-point rating scale; Superior (4), Above Average (3), Average (2) and Below Average (1) (PSTORS) which was used to assess the teachers' practical classroom teaching, and instrument two; a multiple choice test (QTKTMLCMA) that assessed teachers' knowledge of teaching methods, knowledge of learner characteristics and modes of assessment technique. The t-test independent sample was used to test the hypotheses. The results showed that the treatment (SbTDP) was effective in improving teachers' competence of their knowledge of teaching methods, knowledge of learner characteristics and modes of assessment technique. The performance of the experimental group was justified to be higher than the control group. It was recommended that SbTDP was a cost effective strategy that can be used to augment learning outcome in primary schools and beyond.</p> Yusuf Abdullahi Ahmad Copyright (c) 2019 Sun, 03 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Literature and Conflicts Resolution in Nigeria For Sustainable Development <p>This paper examined the unifying role of literature in political, social, and religious diversities that exist in Nigeria, which most of the time resulted in serious arguments, distrusts and conflicts at the expense of national development. Therefore, since literature is the reflection of man and what is going on in his environment, three literary books have been used: Hope in Anarchy, The Beautiful Ones Are Not Yet Born and Songs of the Marketplace. The writers of these books portrayed the higher rate of corruptions, extra judicial killings and other social vices that are taking place in the country. These social vices were satirically criticized by the authors of these literary books. Therefore, some of these criticisms have been analyzed by this paper and came to the conclusion that literature has a role to play in conflict resolution in the country for sustainable development.</p> Ado Sanda Yandamo Copyright (c) 2019 Mon, 04 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Statistical Analysis of Out of School Children (OOSC) of Three to Eleven Years in Yamaltu and Balanga Local Governments Areas in Gombe State, Nigeria <p>The study is designed to establish baseline data of out of school children (OOSC) in twenty primary schools' catchment communities in Balanga, and Yamaltu Deba Local Government Areas of Gombe State. The study was carried out on school aged children according to 3-5 years pre-primary and 6-11 years primary school groups, in the two local government areas. Twenty (20) primary schools` catchment communities were targeted in the LGAs. Data were sourced directly from the households in the target communities by the researcher. The data was collected through a complete enumeration of the households in the target population using a designed questionnaire. Each household head within the catchment communities was interviewed and the results recorded on the form. The retrieved questionnaires were coded and entered into the pre-designed database in EXCEL for analysis and storage. The study identified a total of 6008 children of aged 3-11 among which 3338 are males, 2670 are females, being out-of-school in 20 target communities in the two local government areas in Gombe State. The study recommended that State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB) and Local Government Education Authority (LGEA) should establish Early Child Care and Development (ECCDE)Centres in the focus communities. Adequate facility should be provided to the affected catchment communities to accommodate children aged 3-5. And also to encourage and institutionalize community driven enrolment campaigns to attract both new and drop-out children back to school. To sustain retention and completion of children in focus schools, the stake holders should also galvanize efforts to make the learning environment child-friendly.</p> Bello, Nasiru Mohammed, Ph.D. , Abdullahi, Musa Cledumas Copyright (c) 2019 Tue, 05 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Strategies For Effective and Efficient Teaching of Disabled Children in Regular Schools <p>The paper examined strategies for effective and efficient teaching of learning disabled children in regular schools. It provided a comprehensive definition of learning disabilities as a condition in children and described the causes of learning disabilities. The paper also described the characteristics of learning disabled, strategies to be used in teaching them and offers ways of developing handwriting, mathematical and other skills in children with learning disabilities. Similarly, the paper focused structural lesson presentation to be applied by teachers and finally offered recommendations to classroom teachers.</p> Musa Halilu Copyright (c) 2019 Wed, 06 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Strategies For Improving Adult Education for Human Resources Development in Akwa Ibom State <p>The study examined strategies for improving Adult Education for human resources development in Akwa Ibom State. Three research questions were formulated to guide the study. The population for the study consisted of all the facilitators in Etinan Education Zone of Akwa Ibom State. There was no sampling since the entire population was used for the study. The instrument used for data collection was a Structured Questionnaire titled: “Strategies for Improving Adult Education Programme Questionnaire” (SIAEPQ). The instrument consisted of twenty-one items and was subjected to both face and content validation using one expert in Adult Education and one expert in Measurement and Evaluation, all in College of Education, AfahaNsit, AkwaIbom State. Reliability test on the instrument was carried out through test-retest method using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient (PPMC). Co-efficient of 0.85 was obtained indicating the reliability of the instrument. Two hundred and two (202) Questionnaires were administered to the respondents. The result showed that to improve Adult Education programme, the quality of Adult Education Instructors have to be improved through workshops, seminars, conferences, in-service training incentives and proper supervision, adequate instructional materials and resources; infrastructures and facilities needed in Adult Education centres should be provided. It was recommended that In-Service training should be periodically organized for Adult Education instructors, and that necessary facilities should be provided in Adult Education Centres.</p> Inibehe Asuquo Essienette, Ubong Weston, Ubong Nsini Obot Copyright (c) 2019 Wed, 06 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Effects of Look and Say on Reading Performance, Interest And Gender of the Intellectually Disabled Pupils in Oyo State Special Elementary Schools <p>Education of children with special needs have garnered the focus of stakeholders in education, just as reading is undeniably a tool for all other subjects. Learning to read is unarguably a skill that must be acquired by normal, as well as special needs learners, as a foundation for reading to learn. Consequently, this study examined the effects of look and say reading strategy on the reading performance and interest of the intellectually disabled pupils in Oyo State. The research design adopted for the study was the pre-test, post- test control group quasi experimental design, using 2x2 factorial matrix. The participants involved fifty-six (56) Intellectually Disabled (ID) pupils from special schools in Ibadan and Oyo, Oyo State. The special schools were clustered into two groups and two schools were purposively assigned to intervention. Three (3) self constructed and validated instruments were used for data collection. They are Look and Say Reading Strategy Guide (LSRS), Reading Test (RT) and Pupils' Interest Scale (PIS). Six (6) hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The data collected were analyzed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). The independent variable is look and say reading strategy, while the dependent variables are reading performance and pupils' interest. Gender was used as a moderating variable. The result of the study showed that there was a significant effect of intervention (reading strategies) on ID pupils' reading performance {F (1, 62) = 113.565, P&lt;0.05}. Mean score of look and say reading strategy is (X = 15.64), and conventional group (control) scored the least (X=7.14) in reading performance. The study also revealed that there was a significant effect of intervention (reading strategy) on the intellectually disabled pupils' interest in reading {F (1, 62) =13.483, P&lt;0.05}. Mean score of look and say reading strategy is (X = 26.02), and conventional group (control) scored the least (X = 8.74) in interest in reading. It revealed that there is no significant main effect of gender (moderating variable) on reading performance and interest to reading. Findings also implied that the interaction of intervention and gender do not impede on intellectually disabled pupils' performance and interest to reading. The paper concludes that English language teachers should adopt look and say reading strategy as an innovative method for ID pupils for improved performance.</p> Oyekola, Adebimpe Adesola Copyright (c) 2019 Thu, 07 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Tertiary Education Trust Fund (TETFUND) Intervention on Academic Staff Training in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions: A Case Study of Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare Bauchi State. <p>This paper focused on the impact of Tertiary Education Trust Fund (TETFUND) intervention in staff training in tertiary institutions in Nigeria, using Aminu Saleh College of Education Azare, Bauchi State as a case study. The study examined the issues of staff development before and after the establishment of TETFund in the Institution. The Academic Staff Training and Development (AST&amp;D) Programme of TETFund is an intervention carefully articulated to address academic training needs of beneficiary institutions. Aminu Saleh College of Education Azare is one of the 232 beneficiary institutions of TETFund intervention in Nigeria. The College started benefiting from the AST&amp;D TETFund intervention during the 2007/2008 Academic Session. The research population covers all the academic staff of the institution distributed in 25 Academic Departments. As there are total of 570 academic staff, 20% of them (114) constituted the sample used for data generation. The study made use of documentary records and questionnaire as instruments for data collection. Percentage was used to analyse the data. The results revealed that, there was very poor level of academic staff training in Aminu Saleh College of Education Azare before the introduction of Academic Staff Training and Development (AST&amp;D) by TETFund and that TETFund made a great impact towards improving quality of staff and hence improvementin teaching and learning in the institution. Furthermore, AST&amp;D proved to be a strong motivating factor to staff towards pursuing higher education studies locally and internationally. This depicts the situation in most tertiary institutions in Nigeria, more especially among the states owned ones, that suffer serious underfunding by their States governments. A number of suggestions were offered towards improving service delivery in TETFund intervention for Staff Training and Development, which include increasing fund allocation to AST&amp;D, addressing the problem of belated admission and extension of the programme to Non Academic Staff as well.</p> Zailani Abubakar Giade Copyright (c) 2019 Fri, 08 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Teachers and Students in Curbing Examination Malpractice in Senior Secondary Schools in Gombe State <p>The paper examined the role of teachers and students in curbing examination malpractice in Senior Secondary Schools in Gombe state. The study was conducted using Survey research design. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 341 Respondents comprising of 30 teachers and 211 students were randomly selected as sample for the study using Krejcie and Morgan table of sampling. The findings reveal that inability to cover syllabus content, causes students to cheat in examinations. It has also observed copying from each other in the examination hall; possessing prepared answers during examination; leakages of question papers and writing on the body, handkerchiefs and or cloth as the commonly observed types of examination malpractices among students. The finding also listed thorough search of students before entering into the examination hall; spacing the sitting arrangement in the examination hall; creating awareness about the consequences of examination malpractices and ensuring that the ratio of students to invigilator in the examination hall as some of the best ways of curbing examination malpractice among students. The paper recommends that teachers should be more devoted to their jobs by ensuring that they adequately cover their syllabuses to avoid students excuse to cheat in examination, also there should be a proper sensitization and orientation on the dangers of examination malpractice.</p> Umar Abdullahi, Usman Hammaadama, Hamza Adamu Soye, Umar A. Ahmed Copyright (c) 2019 Sat, 09 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Roles of Library in The Provision of Efficient Service Delivery to Its Patrons <p>The paper explains more on core competences of library and information science professionals in achieving the goals of library patrons. It highlights the aims and objectives of the library through some certain functions that can inculcate the reading habit in its clients, provision of up to date collection and information materials in order to keep its users abreast, encourage readers to read for pleasure at their leisure time, at the same time to provide conducive atmosphere for reading and research and to develop love and respect for books by the readers. It also examines the essential services that enhance the effective and efficient service delivery to the users and the roles of the library have categorically been stated, asour society is undergoing a process of rapid change. Moving towards what is called the information society, it is believed that information and knowledge are distinguishing features of this modern society and the main driver of this change is the growing use of information and communication technologies (ICT). Education and training are perceived to be the key elements in the process of change and central in the development of knowledge base is proudly affected by the library. The finding of the study revealed that the knowledge imparted to users assist them to conduct searches for information independently. The paper recommends that library is advised to make adequate provision of ICT and necessary electronic gadgets to embrace the recent changes.</p> Usman Mohammed Adam cln, Ibrahim Kalil Datti, cln, Mohammed Shuaibu, cln Copyright (c) 2019 Sun, 10 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Using Instructional Materials for Effective Teaching Practice in Nigerian Schools <p>Teaching at any level requires that the students be exposed to some form of instruction. The ultimate purpose of an effective teaching and learning is to bring about change on the part of the learner. Teaching Practice is practical oriented exercise designed to expose trainee teachers to what they will encounter after graduation in actual classroom situation. Teaching Practice equips the trainee teachers with the skills to stand and control the class. This paper therefore is intended to investigate the concept of Teaching Practice, instructional materials and types such as graphic or two-dimensional materials, reading materials, audio material, models and real objects were discussed to enhance effective Teaching Practice. It is concluded that instructional materials bring content or what is being taught to the perceptual level of the learner. Therefore, it is very important for the student teacher to use teaching materials/aids to make teaching and learning simple, interesting, systematic, and positively interactive and motivation of educational experiences especially in their subject area</p> Lilian Achigaonye (Mrs) Copyright (c) 2019 Mon, 11 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A Review of Teaching and Learning Methodologies of Mathematics Subject at The Nursery and Primary Levels of Education <p>The topic of this paper refers to the principles and methods that are available to the teachers that help to impart knowledge, skills and values effectively in the pupils. It is not enough for a teacher to have the content knowledge but he should be able to impart it well. Pre-primary Education is that form of Education given to children aged 0 5 years prior to their entering the primary school. Primary Education on the other hand is the Education offered in institutions for children aged 6years and above, plus “the rest of the Educational system”. Teaching children at these levels requires careful planning and technicalities so as to achieve the set objectives by the teacher (i.e. Behavioral Objectives). These behavioral objectives must be clear, specific, and measureable and should be centered on the child (NTI, 2007, p.119). The paper discussed some important strategies to follow in teaching Mathematics subject to children age 2-5 years which within the Nigerian context are children in the nursery school. Children of age 6 to 13 are in primary school. In promoting methodologies in the teaching and learning of Mathematics to children, six important strategies were highlighted. Examples of how to promote teaching and learning of Mathematics Subject on Some Topics at the Nursery and Primary levels were also cited. Going by the conclusion principles and methods to follow which are available to the teacher that can help him/her to impact knowledge, skill and values effectively were also classified based on the children level of learning for some topics of Mathematics were also cited in the paper. And it is not enough for the Mathematics teacher to have the content knowledge only, but he /she should also consider the subject culture and socio-cultural values in the teaching of Mathematics. Finally, from the recommendations made, teachers of Mathematics subject should have to inculcate a good students-teacher relationship, in such a way that their students can feel free for asking them questions and solve their immediate problems.</p> Alkali Bappah Muhammad, Shehu Idris Zubair Copyright (c) 2019 Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Information And Communication Technology (ICT) On Tertiary Institutions Administration In Nasarawa State, Nigeria <p>The study was carried out to establish the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on tertiary institutions administration in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. A descriptive research design was adopted in conducting this research. Four research questions and hypotheses were used to guide the study to a coherent conclusion. A structured questionnaire titled: ICT on administration of tertiary institutions assessments questionnaire (IATIAQ) was used to elicit information from the respondents. The study population comprised 127 staff randomly drawn from 6 selected public tertiary institutions in Nasarawa State using the stratified random sampling method. The data generated was evaluated using Pearson correlation co-efficient (Pearson r) statistical tool. Findings revealed that ICT has a significant impact on records management, student's academic performance, teacher's job performance and instructional supervision which are amongst the key components and essential parameters of measuring the achievement of tertiary institutions in Nasarawa state. Provision of adequate funds, manpower and ICT facilities to schools, regular monitoring and evaluation of school activities and routine training and retraining of staff on ICT appreciation and application are recommended based on the findings of the study.</p> Uman, Yunusa Dangara Copyright (c) 2019 Wed, 13 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Cooperative (Small Group) Learning and Its Efficiency in Enhancing The ICT Learning Ability of The Intellectually Challenged <p>From the report of World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank (2011), physically challenged persons carry a significant proportion of the world's population, about 15%, as a result of differences in educational standard to the normal individuals, they are rarely seen as contributors to productive human capital development of the Society. Most of the Intellectually Challenged persons have little or no access to education, this is as a result of several challenges they face in learning and comprehension. Most schools curricula were developed without considering the fact that, different categories of students including people living with disabilities will also make use of them. during the requirement specification of those curriculum. This paper focuses on the use of small group learning to enhance the learning ability of the Intellectually Challenged Students. It also aims to compare the degree of efficiency of the cooperative learning over normal classroom learning for these categories of Students. It also unveils different learning strategies that could promote learning ability of students in this modern age.</p> I.K. Ojuope Copyright (c) 2019 Thu, 14 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Mathematics Education in A Depressed Economy <p>The Nigerian economy requires mathematics that can effectively put science and technology in the fore front of nation building. This paper reviewed the concept of mathematics and role of mathematics in nation building, the importance and challenges of mathematics were highlighted. Finally, Mathematics Education and depressed economy were discussed, then conclusion and recommendation are given.</p> Ogunniyi Temeem Abiodun Copyright (c) 2019 Thu, 14 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Cooperative Learning Strategies in Improving Students' Achievement in Science <p>This paper critically examined the relevant literature on three types of cooperative learning strategies, their peculiarities and empirical evidences vis-a-vis their role in improving Secondary School students' achievement in Science. Students find it difficult to understand the basic scientific concepts, hence a student that is not well grounded in science and technology at the basic level, will not show interest in offering core science and technology subjects. In order to achieve the objectives of Science and Technology Education, the cooperative mode of teaching strategies have been recommended. Out of many cooperative learning strategies, this paper focuses on: Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD); Jigsaw Technique (JT) and Team Assisted Individualization (TAI). The paper recommended, among others, that Science teachers should be provided with training for their continuing professional development on the effective use of cooperative learning strategies for instruction.</p> Sani Idris, Adamu Babawuro, Rilwanu Mohammed Copyright (c) 2019 Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Aesthetic Analysis on The Impact of Visual Elements in Print Advertisement with Reference to Packaging of Consumer Products <p>The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of aesthetic elements as factors in the creation of attractive promotional visuals which are intended to arrest the attention, interest and desire of the consumer, thereby prompting the consumer to act by patronizing the goods on offer. Aesthetic impact of an advertising image on consumers is analyzed based on factors related to colour, text, illustration and format. Some consumer products were selected and used in assessing consumers' reactions toward their aesthetic appeal on the sampled population. Data collected was analyzed and graphically presented. The conclusive part of this article highlights the fact that, the work of the Graphic Artists who create advertising visuals and design packages is not dependent on accident for it to achieve the aesthetic appeal required by the promoting company. The artists carefully and deliberately plan and execute their work using purposefully selected media and calculated choice of visual elements to evoke the kind of mood intended to appeal to the target consumers</p> Ameen A. Ahmed, Datti Mahmud Copyright (c) 2019 Sat, 16 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Art Curriculum Implementation in Secondary Schools: Issues, Problems and Prospects <p>This paper looks at issues, problems and prospects for Art Curriculum implementation in secondary schools in Nigeria. It looks at the conceptual framework of curriculum implementation and art. It also examines some of the goals of Art in secondary schools as stated in the National Policy on Education. Issues and problems related to art curriculum implementation were considered, i.e. the art teacher, curriculum design, students' interest, environment (space, studio) etc. Prospects and recommendations were made, one of which is school administrators and teachers being the implementers of the curriculum should put all hands on deck to ensure that the curriculum is properly implemented to suit the aims and objectives it is meant to achieve. Conclusion was drawn in relation to the theme.</p> Goshi, M. Shedrach, Adamu Ishiaku, Jacob David Gofwan Copyright (c) 2019 Sun, 17 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effective Entrepreneurship Education Curriculum: Panacea for Youth Unemployment and Insecurity in Nigeria <p>The progress of any nation is closely related to the level of resourcefulness of its people, which to a great extent, relates to the level of quality of the training and purposeful development of education in that nation. Such development could take place when an individual in the society is gainfully employed and per capita income is enhanced. This could only be possible when government educational policies are geared towards a functional education that can lead to job creation and selfreliance. Entrepreneurship educationis a means through which government could attain such development in the society. Therefore, the paper focuses on addressing youth unemployment and insecurity in Nigeria through functional entrepreneurship education. It examines concepts of youth, unemployment, causes of youth unemployment and insecurity, nexus between unemployment and insecurity, entrepreneurship education, objectives of entrepreneurship education, challenges facing entrepreneurship education in Nigeria, entrepreneurship as antidotes to youth unemployment and insecurity. The paper went further to proffer some recommendations that if Nigeria takes will help to address the problems of youth unemployment and insecurity.</p> Jacob David Gofwan, Idris Ibrahim, Yakubu Bala Copyright (c) 2019 Mon, 18 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis Of Price Fluctuation and Market Performance of Maize (Zea Mays) In Girei Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria <p>The study analyzed price fluctuation and market performance of maize in Girei Loca[ Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Descriptive statistics, Gini coefficient and simple regression analysis were applied on a random sample of 70 marketers selected for the study using multi-stage random sampling. The objectives of the study are to describe the socio-economic characteristics of marketers, determine the market performance of the marketers, the seasonal price pattern of maize and to identify the problems associated with maize marketing in the study area. The findings revealed that majority (51.40%) of the marketers were male and married and had some form of formal education. The respondents had marketing experience of over five (5) years and used personal savings in their marketing business. On price fluctuation, the study revealed the existence of seasonal variation in the price pattern of maize from 1999-2013 with an average monthly price rise of 64.65 during the 15-year period. The result of the revealed inequality in earning among marketers, an indicator of market imperfection and poor market performance. The study recommended among others that more storage facilities should be built by collective action of the government, nongovernmental organization so as to cushion the effect of seasonal price variation of maize on consumers and marketers</p> Saidu, B., Maurice, D.C., Jibril, S. Y. Copyright (c) 2019 Mon, 18 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Revitalizing Entrepreneurship Education for Political Stability and Enhanced Security in Nigeria <p>Insecurity and political fluctuations are diseases that bedevil Nigeria nowadays. To cure it, there is a need to revitalise Entrepreneurship Education in both formal and non-formal learning environments. This is to equip the youth with an ability, capacity and competencies to provide themselves with economic and social security so that they cannot be a material for distracting national security. Distracting national security is by practicing undesirable behaviours such as stealing, raping, drug abuse, thuggery, burglary, insurgencies, fraud, kidnapping etc. it will also help in reducing conflict over limited resources and political position. Nigeria will be a great country where stability will feature as one of its features, if Government and stakeholders should provide loans and business empowerment especially for the graduates to start and boost their business so they cannot have a time and interest in fighting for political positions.</p> Abubakar Hussaini Usman Copyright (c) 2019 Mon, 18 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Using Visual Arts Pedagogies to Motivate Creative Thinking Among Students of Higher Learning <p>The intention of this paper is to illustrate the potentials of the visual arts as driving force that fosters creativity and innovation in school settings and suggests the application of visual arts creative strategies in developing creativity amongst students of other disciplines. The author suggests that the visual arts, as with other creative arts disciplines, can be potent instruments for change in general education by critically reviewing art pedagogies and connecting them to curriculum reform in line with research on creativity and innovations occurring in other fields. To achieve this outcome, the paper suggests that, both curriculum documents and teaching practices in visual arts need to be aligned to promote key educational principles. Extending visual education beyond the parameters and boundaries of visual arts education would also pave way for integrated teaching of subject content. The paper suggests that, some degree of interdisciplinary idea is needed because the realm of the visual arts overlaps with many school subjects and this invariably will challenge old curriculum constructs. Creating greater partnerships between educationalists interested in exploring the use of visual communication in multi-disciplinary teaching will be a positive way to help teachers and students from diverse disciplines understand the complexity and power of visual imagery. These issues are examined in the paper in consideration of literatures related to the instructions in the visual arts, reviewing such areas as visual arts and creative pedagogies, as well as teaching visual arts for creativity. The discussion at the conclusion of the paper brings together these issues and establishes a case for using the visual arts in schools to motivate higher levels of creative engagement amongst students of general education.</p> Ameen A. Ahmed Copyright (c) 2019 Tue, 19 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Baby Dumping in Nigeria as A Form of Violence Against Children: Lessons from Yoruba Indigenous Education <p>An injury to a baby is an injury to a future parent and the society as the baby of today is a parent tomorrow. A child dumped for whatever reason is left at the mercy of pigs, snakes, worms, ritualists and the like for devouring. This act which may deny the child the right to life is an infringement on the right of the child as enshrined in the United Nation`s Child Right Act. Employing Erikson's Psychosocial Theory as the theoretical framework, this paper analyzes the vexed issue of baby dumping phenomenon in Nigeria as a form of violence against children, selecting Yoruba indigenous education as a model for checking the ugly trend. Poverty, family values degeneration, health and immorality are some of the reasons responsible for baby dumping in Nigeria. The model society ? Yoruba traditional society employed diverse strategies against baby dumping which include stringent family values, communal living, self-employment and morality which are suggested as incorporable values of checking the issue of baby dumping in contemporary Nigerian societies.</p> Segun Adenipekun Olanibi Copyright (c) 2019 Wed, 20 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Need for Islamic Economic System for Sustainable Development in Nigeria <p>Islamic economic system is needed for sustainable development in Nigeria, because the system is designed by the most knowledgeable Lord in His Holy book 'The Qur'an' and through teachings of His messenger prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). Islamic economic system encourages earning one's living through decent labour, hard work and dedication. Earning living legally is considered not only compulsory duty but great religious duty and virtue as well. Capitalism encourages accumulation of wealth. Capitalism is devoid of spiritual elements while socialism played down the material nature in man and tied down economic activities to state. The Islamic economic system is a just and balanced monetary system which takes into consideration, the spiritual and material needs of man. The Islamic Shari'ah and the Nigerian constitution both allow for private ownership of wealth but with some degree of limitations. In Islamic Shari'ah man is just an agent appointed by Allah with necessary measures to ensure proper handling of his wealth. This is in regard to right of ownership of property by individual. In Islamic economic system, many ways of sharing wealth have been encouraged such as giving Zakat (poor due), Sadaqa (charity) and Waqaf (endowment) fund; are examples of ways of sharing wealth. It equally condemns usury or interest (Riba) deceit, exploitation, monopoly in business and allows man to reach high status in-free trade done in the interest of public</p> Muhammad Baba Sa'ad, Dr. Ayuba Bala Haruna, Muhammad Bello Adam Copyright (c) 2019 Thu, 21 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Educational Implications of Interests and Needs of Children in Early Childhood Care and Education <p>Issues concerning children' needs and interests at their early childhood periods are the focus of this paper. Employing Maslow's hierarchy of needs as a theoretical guide, each of the needs identified by Maslow ? Biological and Physiological, Safety, Love and Belongingness, Esteem, and self-actualization needs are discussed in relation to the child, foregrounding possible interests that may emanate from the needs. The educational implications of the needs and interests are also brought to the fore, using concrete examples that may emanate in an early childhood care and education programmes. The paper revealed the imperativeness of paying special attentions to the needs and interests of children especially at a very important period of their life ? the early childhood period which spurred recommendations on the need for parents, teachers, caregivers and other children's handlers to avoid actions that may adversely affect children's needs, as denying them their needs may deprive them of costly needs including life. The paper also suggests that children's interest should be nurtured to maturation; provided the interest is not harmful to the child, as nurturing children's interest make such children self-actualized-adults.</p> Segun Adenipekun Olanibi Copyright (c) 2019 Fri, 22 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effects Of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) On Academic Performance of Pre-NCE Economics Students in Aminu Saleh College of Education Azare, Bauchi State <p>This study investigated the effect of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on academic performance of Economics students in Aminu Saleh College of Education Azare, Bauchi State. The study adopted quasi experimental design with the samples of 50 pre NCE Economics students selected through simple random sampling. Economics Achievement Test was used for data collection. The instrument was validated by experts and has reliability coefficient of 0.74 using Cronbachs' Alpha reliability test. Non parametric statistics (independent sample ttest) were used to analyze the data using SPSS version 21. The findings of the study revealed that there was a significant difference in the academic performance of students taught Economics using CAI (29.77) and those taught without CAI (19.77). The study also found that there was no significant difference in the academic performance of male and female students taught Economics using CAI (- 13.17 and 0.17). The study concluded that students who are introduced to the use of CAI for learning would improve their academic performance more than students who could not have access to the use of CAI. The study recommended that Economics lecturers and students should employ the use of CAI in teaching and learning Economics at PRE-NCE level.</p> Habu Shehu, Shehu Shu'aibu, Abdulbasir Yusuf Umar Copyright (c) 2019 Sat, 23 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 An Appraisal of The Factors Responsible for Poor Implementation of Economics Curriculum in Public Secondary Schools in Katagum Local Government Area, Bauchi State <p>This study examined the factors responsible for poor implementation of Economics Curriculum in public secondary schools in Katagum Local Government Area Bauchi state. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design with the sample of 155 respondents that were purposefully selected from13 Public Secondary Schools in the study area. A 25-item questionnaire developed by the researchers was used to collect data from the sampled respondents. The instrument was validated by expert and has the reliability coefficient of 0.84 using Cronbach`s Alpha reliability test. The responses obtained were analysed using mean and standard deviation to answer the three research questions. The study found that institutional factors, teachers' related factors and students' related factors were responsible for poor implementation of Economics curriculum in the study area. It was recommended among others, that Government, schools' proprietors, teachers, parents, Parent Teachers Association, Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) and other stakeholders should join hands in providing lasting solutions to the problems that hindered effective curriculum implementation in the study area</p> Habu Shehu, Shehu Shu'aibu, Abubakar Ahmed Copyright (c) 2019 Sun, 24 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Islamic Social Regulation: A Panacea to Peaceful Co-Existence <p>Islam as a complete way of life has provided us with social regulations to guide our interactions with one another. Conflict is inherent in human nature, however, if properly tackled can be reduced to the barest minimum. Islamic social regulation lays the foundation for mutual respect granting social rights to individuals and groups irrespective of creed, race or cultural affiliation. It is only through the actual application of such social regulations that peace and tranquillity can be achieved by man on the earth. The paper presents some of these social etiquettes, beginning with the Islamic social conduct within the family, between neighbours and in the society at large. Paths to the attainment of harmonious co-existence among diverse ethnic and religious groups are also highlighted. The paper recommends, among others, that parents and religious leaders, in recognition of their vital position in the socialization process, should imbibe Islamic social regulations so as to serve as good role models in the society.</p> Magaji Bappa Sulaiman, Muhammad Baba Sa'ad, Dr. Ayuba Bala Haruna Copyright (c) 2019 Mon, 25 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Need for Teaching Islamic Economic System at Secondary School Level in Nigeria for Sustainable Development <p>The teaching of Islamic Economic System at secondary level is seriously needed on the account that the students at secondary school would be conscious of the fact that wealth belongs to Allah and He gives it to whoever He wants as an agent only. It will educate them to have useful living, higher education and provide them with sound thinking and appreciation of the danger attached to Capitalist and Socialist Economic Orders, that lack moral concern for others and failed to provide welfare, peace of mind and good living to humanity in general. This is so because those systems lack spiritual guidance to man and only encourage pursue of individual wealth or state wealth through usury and interest (Riba). Monopoly, exploitation, fraud, hoarding are also encouraged in capitalism, while Islamic Economic System condemns all these and provide alternative balanced monetary system which takes care of both spiritual and materials life of Muslims. These can be seen in the collection and distribution of Zakat, charity (Sadaqa) (Waqf) endowment fund, Wasiyya (will) and (Mirath) inheritance. For these reasons, the system need to be taught to future leaders.</p> Muhammad Baba Sa'ad, Dr. Ayuba Bala Haruna, Muhammad Bello Adam Copyright (c) 2019 Wed, 27 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Waiting Period for Mourning the Death of Husband ('IDDATU-L-WAF?T) Among Muslim Women in Ilorin <p>Death is unavoidable. It is a pill that every soul will taste. Human lineage is cherished by Isl?m. After the demise of a husband, his wife has to wait to observe 'iddatu-l-waf?t before she can re-unite to another man in marriage. 'Iddatu-l-waf?t is duration of four months and ten days that a woman must observe to mourn her dead spouse as well as to ascertain her womb status in order to avoid attributing unborn baby to a wrong father. 'Iddatu-l-waf?t is not new to Muslim women in Ilorin. But due to infiltration of external influence, the term worn a new form which makes the women perceive the period as threat to womanhood. Thus, this paper focuses on highlighting the concept of 'iddatu-l-waf?t as well as to pinpoint some innovations integrated into 'iddatu-l-waf?t by some people in Ilorin. The method adopted in this research included observation, interview and literary appraisal. The paper recommends that regular enlightenments should be intensified by Isl?mic clerics to curb irregularities in 'iddatu-l-waf?t.</p> AbdulWaheed Jamiu Copyright (c) 2019 Thu, 28 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000